Ovarian teratoma is a congenital disease, but it is not a genetic disease. It is formed when one embryo stays in the ovary as the other develops in the uterus during embryonic growth and development. As the patient ages, the teratoma gradually grows, containing multiple types of tissues such as mesodermal, ectodermal, hair, fat, bone, teeth, and visceral tissues. The existence of these tissues may mechanically affect ovulation, and some teratomas also have secretion function, which may cause problems such as hypertension, menstrual disorders, and abnormal stature.
Ovarian teratomas are usually discovered when patients seek medical attention due to infertility or acute abdominal pain (ovarian torsion), rarely before marriage. Particularly large tumors may attract the attention of parents. It should be noted that ovarian teratomas are divided into benign and malignant, but regardless of benign or malignant, there is no need to remove the ovary because even malignant tumors are malignant tissues within the teratoma and generally do not cause ovarian implantation metastatic cancer, thus ovary removal is unnecessary.
Currently, Beijing Antai Hospital adopts advanced 3D laparoscopic technology for the surgical treatment of ovarian teratomas, to minimize pelvic contamination. Generally, after surgery, the teratoma will not recur, but in individual cases, there may be growth on the contralateral side due to the failure to detect small teratomas during treatment. Therefore, the surgical principle is to explore whether there are small teratomas on the contralateral ovary while treating large teratomas. If there are, they should be removed together to avoid recurrence.
After complete removal of the teratoma through Beijing Antai Hospital’s 3D laparoscopic surgery, the ovary can regain normal function and will not affect pregnancy and childbirth. In addition, patients need to undergo a series of examinations to exclude other factors that may cause infertility, such as:
Ultrasonography of the uterus: It uses ultrasonic technology to examine the structure, shape, and size of the uterus. This can help doctors detect problems such as endometrial polyps, uterine fibroids, and abnormal endometrial thickness.
Hysteroscopy: By inserting a thin tube into the uterine cavity, doctors can directly observe the condition of the endometrium. This can help doctors detect problems such as endometriosis and adenomyosis.
Hysterosalpingography: In this examination, doctors inject a contrast agent into the uterus and conduct X-ray examination to understand the condition of the uterus and fallopian tubes. This can help doctors detect problems such as endometriosis and fallopian tube obstruction.
Endometrial biopsy: In this examination, doctors take a small piece of tissue from the endometrium for pathological examination to evaluate the health of the endometrium, including the presence of inflammation, abnormal proliferation, and other problems.
Through these examinations, doctors can more comprehensively evaluate the patient’s uterine health and understand if there are any factors that may cause infertility.